Chicken and Egg Problems in Science

In an earlier forum response, I described some chicken and egg problems that arise while trying to construct the notions of space, time, and objects. I will use this post to elaborate on these problems further and then illustrate how they are solved in Sāñkhya philosophy, leading to the conclusion that whatever we call the “body” springs out of a succession...

Can We Know Reality Without Changing It?

The modern atomic theory describes perception as a change both to reality and to our perception. For instance, when we see the redness of an apple, light impinges on the apple, is absorbed by the atoms in the apple, and then emitted. The color perceived by the eyes is due to the light that is emitted. This model of perception requires...

The Problem of Measurement in Science

It is commonly assumed that science describes objective facts about the world, which are discovered through measurements of physical properties. The problems in this measurement are generally not understood, and this post describes them, highlighting two key issues of circularity and recursion in the definition of measurement. How these problems are addressed in Indian philosophy is also discussed.