Ruminations on Vedic Philosophy

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How Do You Know You Are Not Dreaming?

In a recent post, I discussed the four tiers of reality, called waking, dreaming, deep sleep, and transcendent. Each successive stage of reality is given greater importance, which means that dreaming is more important than waking. This surprises people—We dream when we sleep; how can sleeping be more important than waking? In this post, I …


Is Bhagavad-Gita Teaching Jihad?

Recently an Indian politician commented that Bhagavad-Gita also teaches Jihad (a religious war). This post lists the differences between what Lord Kṛṣṇa teaches in Bhagavad-Gita (and what happened during the Mahabharata war) and religious war. It is important to have detailed answers to such questions. We will go through the historical background, the events that …

Mathematics Philosophy

The Invention of Zero

It is often said that Indians invented the zero, which then allowed the invention of negative numbers, complex numbers, and then modern mathematics and physics. The Roman numeral system (which followed the Greek system of counting) did not have zero. After all, zero represented “nothing”, which was purely conceptual but not physical. When zero is …


Responses to YouTube Comments

I got invited to an atheist podcast. I’m reluctant to engage because my previous attempts have revealed gross levels of (a) ignorance about the fundamentals of modern science, (b) ignorance about the historical chain of events that led to current science, (c) ignorance of anything other than current mainstream Western thinking, (d) inability to grasp …

Philosophy Physics

Chicken and Egg Problems in Science

In an earlier forum response, I described some chicken and egg problems in science in describing space, time, and objects. I thought this can be elaborated in detail to illustrate the nature of the problem, and how these are solved in Sāñkhya philosophy, leading to the conclusion that whatever we call the “body” springs out …